Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Chapter 3: Theoretical Background Second Draft



This study was conducted to determine the effects of watching anime and reading manga on the study habits of students. To support the study, theories will be used in order to fully explain the factors and variables of the study.

I. Theoretical Framework

The Hypodermic Needle Theory

The hypodermic needle theory's origins are largely unknown, and research on the theory's founder is hampered by the generality that surrounded media analysis in the early 20th century. Hypodermic Theory, also known as "Magic Bullet Theory" and "Hypodermic Needle Theory" was claimed to have arisen out of the surplus of propaganda and other influential films made public in the years immediately after World War I and in the years leading up to World War II. Hoever, although not widely recognized for having come up with the theory, Harold Lasswell may have refined and introduced the Hypodermic Theory in his 1927 book "Propaganda Techniques in the World War".

The "hypodermic needle theory" implied mass media has a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences. It predicts strong and more or less universal affects of mass communication messages on all the audience members who happen to be exposed to them. Media fires the message directly into audience head without the audience knowing and this message causes the immediate response from the audience mind without any uncertainty. The media injects the message into viewers mind and it cause changes in audience behavior and consciousness towards the message. Audience are passive and they can’t resist the media message.

This theory deals with the impact of media messages in audience mind and how audience react towards the message without any hesitation.

The Temporal Motivation Theory

The Temporal Motivation Theory of Dr. Piers Steel (2007) provides strong evidence on why we procrastinate and is one of the major theories that fully explains the root causes of procrastination. The best definition for procrastination is the delaying of a task that was originally planned despite expecting to be worse off for the delay (van Eerde, 2003). Because the delay is irrational, people end up voluntarily choosing a course of action that they know will not maximize their physical, psychological and material well-being. But even though the people know that engaging into procrastination is bad for them, they still do it because when people find the work difficult or not enjoyable they also tend to procrastinate. Some people get distracted so easily that is why put off things that need to be done for later. The nearer the deadline the harder the people concerned work on. Also, some people make some plans on the things they need to work but do not work on the plan.

The Self- Handicapping Theory

In order to fully grasp the Self Handicapping theory, the attribution theory must be discussed first. The attribution theory of Weiner (1935) is about how the learner's "current self- perception" influences the ways which they interpret the outcomes of their doings. In attribution theory a person will interpret the surroundings and engage into a course of action. He then finds justifications, if the course of action he took just so happened to fail, and make them seem like he had no control over certain factors that hindered him from doing a certain task. That is why when people succeed they attribute it to their own effort but when they fail they say that it is because of reasons which they have no control.

Self-handicapping Theory by Riggs (1992) uses the principles of the attribution theory. In the self-handicapping theory, however, people willingly create the obstructions that hinder them from doing a certain task. These obstructions might be foolish but they help make excuses. If people fail, they tend to say it is because of these obstructions. These obstructions have a great impact on the performance of people because it blocks learning. Self-handicapping is common on teenagers. because it is commonly occurs on people who are concerned on their image and most likely they are teenagers (Slavin, 1983).

Figure 3. 1

II. Conceptual Framework

From the Hypodermic Needle Theory presented earlier, the researchers have dubbed the internet, television and various forms of printed material as the mediums that the viewers are exposed to regularly, subsequently giving these media direct and powerful influences upon the audience seeing as the internet and television have changed the speed, storage and availability of information from all over the word making various information easier to access. The messages from the medium, therefore, are directly injected into the viewers mind without them knowing and they passively consume the information and are unable to resist it.

So, if we incorporate the Hypodermic Theory with that of the Temporal Motivation Theory where it is stated that the more unpleasant a student finds a task, which in this case is studying, or making papers and assignments, the more likely he/she will put it off for later. First, modern technology has made it easier for people to procrastinate. The internet provides many distractions like checking e-mails, listening to music, instant messaging friends, playing computer games, watching videos on YouTube and hanging out in virtual social networks like Facebook, Tumblr and MySpace that can hinder a person from finishing a task that is needed to be done. However, the Internet is not the only existing distraction: television, cell phones, mp3 players, video games and a lot more sophisticated, modern inventions can cause serious procrastination.

And to add, the Self-Handicapping Theory which states that people will willingly find obstructions to excuse their failures. If a student will fail and he/she has not studied because she was watching TV or was surfing the net the day before a major exam, then he/she has the appropriate excuse to have failed and thus will not feel that he/she is stupid or dumb. However if he/she passes the exam without studying, then the student will think that he/she is a genius for passing an exam even if they spent the previous day just lazying around. Given these theories, the student will find excuses not the make projects and will look for ways not to or put off studying for exams later. These excuses will involve surfing the internet, playing computer games, wasting time in Facebook and other social networking sites and watching videos in YouTube all day long.

Figure 3 . 2

III. Operational Framework

As what the theories above stated, there are mediums that influenced a communicative situation to the Second Year College students of the University of the Philippines Cebu College. Since it is already established in this study that modern technology, which in this case is the internet, has changed the accessibility of information from all around the word making various information easier to access. This has resulted to the fast and world-wide distribution and dispersion of Japanese anime and manga. But it is just not the internet that makes anime and manga available for those who want to access them. Anime could be accessed through the television or could be streamed online or downloaded through the internet and bought at local DVD stores in malls. Manga could be bought from bookstores or purchased and read online. Like a drug, anime and manga is injected into the student to create a more effective, powerful and strong impact making anime and manga hard for them to resist watching and reading them.

Anime and manga will then be the student's obstructions and from our Temporal Motivation Theory where it is stated that the more unpleasant studying is, or making papers and assignments, the more likely a student will put it off for later and would rather spend their time watching anime and reading manga in the internet due to its easy accessibility. With this, the student will most likely put off studying and making projects for catching up with the anime series they are following.

From the Self-Handicapping Theory where obstructions are created to excuse failures, students unconsciously find ways to distract themselves and make these distractions as excuses for not studying or making projects. If students conduct group study sessions, students will talk about anime and manga and, thus, will make a good excuse for not having studied for an exam well. If a student will fail an exam or be unable to meet a deadline because he/she was watching anime and reading manga, then he/she has the appropriate excuse to have failed.

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